Environment 2007 Supplementary

Environment: 2007 Archive - Supplementary Information

Canada's natural beauty is a hallmark. How are we taking care of our beautiful environment?

Note: Unless otherwise indicated, references to "Kitchener" refer to the Kitchener Census Metropolitan Area (CMA).

Divert Residential Waste

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Residential Water Use

Table VIII-1: Total Average Daily Flow of Water for Residential Use in Litres per Capita, 2001 and 2004

Source: Environment Canada. Water use data 2001 and 2004.

In 2004, the average daily flow per capita of water for residential use in Kitchener was 234 litres per capita, down 2 per cent from 2001. In 2001 (2004 data are unavailable at the provincial and national level) the average daily flow per capita was 70 per cent of the national average and 83 per cent of the provincial average.

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Levels of Ozone

Appendix Table VIII-6: Air Quality in Vital Signs Communities, 2001-2005
 Seasonal Mean 8h Daily Max Ozone (ppb)

Source: Environment Canada. Data obtained by special request.

Note: The definitons for ground-level ozone and particulates are from the community accounts data published by the government of Newfoundland and Labrador

Definition: Ground-level ozone is a reactive, unstable form of oxygen. In very high concentrations, it is a bluish gas. It has a characteristic sharp smell which may be recognized around electrical equipment such as motors or arc welders. In the concentrations found in outdoor air, ground-level ozone is both colourless and odourless. Ground-level ozone is formed in the air from other pollutants, most notably nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. Slow-moving air and strong sunshine greatly speed up the formation of ozone. Vehicle exhaust are large contributions of ground level ozone as well as industrial emissions. Gound-level ozone irritates the lungs and can make breathing difficult.

Exposure to high concentrations can result in chest tightness, coughing and wheezing. Ground-level ozone can also damage agricultural crops such as potatoes and tomatoes as well as affect trees and other vegetation. Ozone also weakens rubber and attacks metals and painted surfaces. Canada-Wide Environmental Standards (CWSs) have been developed for ground-level ozone. The standard to be achieved by 2015 is 65 ppb. This is based on the 4th highest measurement annually (8-hour means), averaged over 3 consecutive years.

Particulates are particles in the air either from a natural origin or as a result of human activity. PM-2.5 is particulate matter with an effective diameter of 2.5 microns or less which bypass filtration in the nose and may be deposited in the lungs. This is referred to as "respirable" particulate. Common natural sources of particulates include wind-blown soil dust, forest fires, sea salt, volcanoes, and plants, as well as, human activity such as fuel combustion and any other burning, travel on dirt roads, construction work, and mining and quarrying. is 30 mg/m3.

In analyzing particulates, PM-2.5 is of special significance in terms of health impacts since it has a higher chance of entering and remaining in the lungs if inhaled. People with existing breathing complaints such as asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema are likely to be adversely affected by high concentrations of particulates. Particulates can also cause corrosion and soiling of metalwork or other materials, damage vegetation, and reduce visibility. Canada-Wide Environmental Standards (CWSs) have been developed for PM-2.5. The standard to be achieved by 2010 This is based on the 98th percentile measurement annually (24-hour means), averaged over 3 consecutive years.

National Comparisons (PDF)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Table VIII-2: Green House Gas Emissions for Transportation * for Vital Signs CMAs, 2001
 PopulationGHG Emission (kt)Annual GHG/capita (t)

Source: "The Impact of Transit Improvements of GHG Emissions: A National Perspective." March, 2005 Transport Canda, retrieved from:

*Using measures of direct GHG emissions from automobiles and trucks and not based upon gasoline fuel sales

In 2001, greenhouse gas emission from transportation, which was defined as emissions from automobiles and trucks, in Kitchener was 3.31 tonnes per capita. This represented 14.9 per cent of the national average for total greenhouse gas emissions, which was 22.28 tonnes per capita.

National Comparisons (PDF)


National Comparisons (PDF)

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